The Cardiovascular Benefits of Exercise and Physical Activity

Dr. Mary Blanton Covell discusses the cardiovascular benefits of exercise and physical activity with co-host, Dr. Tracy Macaulay.

0:00-1:07: Introduction

1:08-5:05: Background

5:06-15:45: Patient Education and Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation Programs 

15:46-22:30: What type of exercise is best?

22:31-24:20: Overall Thoughts

24:21-25:05: Closing


Netherlands Cardiac Rehab Trial:

Eijsvogels TMH, Maessen MFH, Bakker EA, et al. Association of Cardiac Rehabilitation With All-Cause Mortality Among Patients With Cardiovascular Disease in the Netherlands. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(7):e2011686. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.11686

Iowa State Pilot Study:

Schroeder EC, Franke WD, Sharp RL, Lee DC. Comparative effectiveness of aerobic, resistance, and combined training on cardiovascular disease risk factors: A randomized controlled trial. PLoS One. 2019;14(1):e0210292. Published 2019 Jan 7. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0210292

CardioRACE methods paper:

Brellenthin AG, Lanningham-Foster LM, Kohut ML, Li Y, Church TS, Blair SN, Lee DC. Comparison of the Cardiovascular Benefits of Resistance, Aerobic, and Combined Exercise (CardioRACE): Rationale, design, and methods. Am Heart J. 2019 Nov;217:101-111. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2019.08.008. Epub 2019 Aug 15. PMID: 31520895; PMCID: PMC6861681.

WHO Sedentary Guidelines:

WHO Guidelines on Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2020. PMID: 33369898.

ESC Exercise in Patients with Cardiac Disease Guidelines:

ESC Scientific Document Group, 2020 ESC Guidelines on sports cardiology and exercise in patients with cardiovascular disease: The Task Force on sports cardiology and exercise in patients with cardiovascular disease of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC), European Heart Journal, Volume 42, Issue 1, 1 January 2021, Pages 17–96,

ACC Primary Prevention Guidelines:

2019 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: Executive Summary: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines

Morris JN, Chave SP, Adam C, Sirey C, Epstein L, Sheehan DJ. Vigorous exercise in leisure-time and the incidence of coronary heart-disease. Lancet. 1973;1(7799):333-339. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(73)90128-1

Sattelmair J, Pertman J, Ding EL, Kohl HW 3rd, Haskell W, Lee IM. Dose response between physical activity and risk of coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis. Circulation. 2011;124(7):789-795. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.010710

Carlsson S, Andersson T, Lichtenstein P, Michaëlsson K, Ahlbom A. Physical activity and mortality: is the association explained by genetic selection?. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;166(3):255-259. doi:10.1093/aje/kwm132

Taylor RS, Brown A, Ebrahim S, et al. Exercise-based rehabilitation for patients with coronary heart disease: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Med. 2004;116(10):682-692. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2004.01.009

Paffenbarger RS Jr, Hyde RT, Wing AL, Hsieh CC. Physical activity, all-cause mortality, and longevity of college alumni. N Engl J Med. 1986;314(10):605-613. doi:10.1056/NEJM198603063141003

Lee DC, Pate RR, Lavie CJ, Sui X, Church TS, Blair SN. Leisure-time running reduces all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk [published correction appears in J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Oct 7;64(14):1537]. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;64(5):472-481. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2014.04.058

Mons U, Hahmann H, Brenner H. A reverse J-shaped association of leisure time physical activity with prognosis in patients with stable coronary heart disease: evidence from a large cohort with repeated measurements. Heart. 2014;100(13):1043-1049. doi:10.1136/heartjnl-2013-305242

O’Keefe JH, Patil HR, Lavie CJ, Magalski A, Vogel RA, McCullough PA. Potential adverse cardiovascular effects from excessive endurance exercise [published correction appears in Mayo Clin Proc. 2012 Jul;87(7):704]. Mayo Clin Proc. 2012;87(6):587-595. doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2012.04.005

Grøntved A, Koivula RW, Johansson I, et al. Bicycling to Work and Primordial Prevention of Cardiovascular Risk: A Cohort Study Among Swedish Men and Women. J Am Heart Assoc. 2016;5(11):e004413. Published 2016 Oct 31. doi:10.1161/JAHA.116.004413

Ellingsen Ø, Halle M, Conraads V, et al. High-Intensity Interval Training in Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction. Circulation. 2017;135(9):839-849. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.116.022924

Authors/Task Force Members, Piepoli MF, Hoes AW, et al. 2016 European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice: The Sixth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice (constituted by representatives of 10 societies and by invited experts): Developed with the special contribution of the European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation (EACPR). Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2016;23(11):NP1-NP96. doi:10.1177/2047487316653709

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